Reti Opening

The Reti Opening is a hypermodern flank opening, starting with 1.Nf3 d5, and 2.c4. By playing this chess opening, White aims to assault the enemy’s central pawns with the flank pawns and looks to establish a strong center later on.

Reti Opening formation

Although Reti Opening is not the top choice, many elite players have utilized this opening. It was popularized in the 1900s at the master level by a player named Richard Reti. It can transition to many c4-d4 lines and has a fighting spirit with both strategic and tactical natures.

Winning Percentage on both sides

Master Games Statistics

Results Rate
Victory for White 34%
Draw 42%
Victory for Black 24%

Statistics from 6 Million Amateur Games

Results Rate
Victory for White 54%
Draw 4%
Victory for Black 42%

Main Ideas of Reti Opening

The Reti System allows White to strike Black’s established pawns with the flank pawns. By letting Black advance their pawns, White aims to strike back with the e-pawn and b-pawn and have a strong foothold in the center. Black can act solidly and avoid complications, or they can accept this invitation, which can lead to tactical scenes. This line can transition to many closed openings, such as an English opening. Players need to be aware of the nuances of these options and compare in-between.

Reti Opening Theory

Reti Gambit often leads to open positions where White aims to utilize its development advantage. They can end up with an isolated d-pawn, and Black typically seeks to exploit that weakness.

The Advance Variation typically leads positions where Whıte strikes with the flank pawn to undermine Black’s central pawns. It can lead to tactical positions.

Other lines like 2…e6 or 2…c6 aim to defend the d5-pawn without overextending with the pawns. Black usually aims to solidify the pawn structure in these situations.

Reti Gambit Accepted: 2.c4 dxc4

Reti Gambit Accepted

It starts after Black accepts the offered c-pawn (2…cxd4). By taking this pawn, Black aims to quickly equalize the game and castle. On the other hand, White seems to have a rapid development and a rapid assault on the rival by disorganizing them.

After 2…dxc4 is played, White possesses several options. The most played one is 3.e3 (opening up the f1-Bishop’s scope to capture the c4-pawn and preparing for short side castling). Another candidate move is to capture the c4-pawn immediately, with Qa4+ and Qxc4 following.

Once the e3 is played, Black can improve their g8-Knight to f6 (3…Nf6) to have a casual development. White can then capture the c4-pawn with the f1-Bishop (4.Bxc4) and prepare for castling. White typically aims to go for d4 to obtain central control. Black seeks to play c5 on many occasions to leave the White side with an isolated pawn in the center.

One sample line could be 3…Nf6, 4.Bxc4, 4…e6 (opening up the dark square Bishop to castle shortly). Then, White can castle and play d4 (5. O-O and 6.d4). Black, in the meanwhile, may play c5-pawn push to leave White with an isolated pawn (5…c5) and take on the d4-pawn (6…cxd4) to achieve their goal. Once White recaptures the d-pawn (7.exd4), Black can continue their development on the queenside (7…Nc6). Then, White can improve the b1-Knight to c3 (8.Nc3) and aim to play the d5-pawn push. Black can play 8…Be7 to shorten the side castle, and White can create a retreating square for the c4-Bishop by playing 9.a3 (Na5 would threaten to capture that strong Bishop, and a3 would create a square on a2 for that Bishop). Once Black castled (9…O-O), White could utilize the open e-file by putting their f1-Rook there (10.Re1).

From there, Black would aim to fianchetto the c8-Bishop to b7 by playing a b6-pawn push. White would desire to utilize the d5-pawn push and gain an advantage. These games can benefit White if they can get the d5-pawn push at the right time. In the long turn, the isolated d-pawn can be a weakness that Black can exploit if they can create the proper blockade (a supported Knight on d5-square would be a dream scenario for Black).

Advance Variation: 2.c4 d4

It takes place after Black advancing the d-pawn to d4 (2…d4). Black intends to keep the central dominance under control, whereas White seeks to strike back with the flank pawns. 3.b4 is the most chosen option to have a dynamic game. 3.g3 can also be chosen to fianchetto the f1-Bishop to g2 and play more positionally. Since the g3 line would allow c5, we will examine the more dynamic approach and concrete lines in this variation.

Reti Gambit Advance Variation



Once White strikes with the 3.b4, the d4-pawn is surrounded by White pawns. White aims to play the typical e3-pawn push to assault that advanced pawn if possible. This would give a great center to White after dxe3 and fxe3, followed by d4. Hence, Black usually goes for 3…c5 to decline this situation. White can play 3.e3 regardless to undermine Black’s central supremacy. Then, Black can capture the d3-pawn (4…dxe3), and after White takes the e-pawn (5.fxe3) to play d4 in the next move, Black can play 5…cxb4 and claim that they have an extra pawn. This line would give Black an extra pawn, but White would have enough compensation with the enormous extra space and central control.

Instead of 4…dxe3, Black can also play 4…b6 to solidify their c-pawn. It is often chosen at a low level and is considered a mistake due to specific sequences of moves. If Black chooses to go for 4…b6 after 4.e3, White can capture the c-pawn (5.bxc5), and after Black recaptures back (5…bxc5), White can play the active 6.Ne5 to exploit the vulnerable light squares in Black’s position on the queenside. Black can try to respond with 6…Bb7 (an improving move), which can be replied to by White checking with the Queen (7.Qa4+). Here, Black has to block (possibly with 7…Nd7), and White can take on d4-pawn (8.exd4 and 8…cxd4) and open up the f1-Bishop’s scope for the ‘a4-e8’ diagonal by playing 9.c5. In those positions, the a4-Queen would be attacking the d4-pawn, the f1-Bishop would be landing on b5 in different positions.

If Black plays the 4…dxe3 line, after White captures that e-pawn (5.fxe3) with the f-pawn, White would have a great center and open files on the queenside after 5…cxb4 played. First, White can establish their d4-pawn push in (6.d4), and after Black improves their pieces (6…Nf6, for example), White can play 7.Bd3 to get ready for short-side castling. Then, Black can fianchetto the dark square Bishop to g7 by playing g6 and Bg7; White, on the other hand, would aim to oppress Black by playing a3 (8.a3, 8…bxa3, and 9.Bxa3) and castle. Then they can put their Rooks on the a- and b-files, utilize their central pawns, and kick the enemy pieces from their ideal squares.

In most cases, Black aims to have a solid position and go for an endgame. White typically needs to push forward and claim their advantage for the lost pawn in these dynamic lines where White gambited a pawn.

Agincourt Defense: 2.c4 e6

It starts with Black pushing the e-pawn to e6 (2…e6) to guard the d-pawn. This move aims to have a solid pawn structure and central control by Black. From here, White has two common approaches: the first is to take on d5-pawn (3.cxd5), and after 3…exd5 is played, establish the d4-pawn in (4.d4). This would create a non-symmetrical pawn structure for both parties. The other reply could be a more flexible approach – 3.g3 to fianchetto the f1-Bishop on g2-square.

Reti Opening Agincourt Defense


One sample line after 3.cxd5 exd5 could be 4.d4 c6 (Black usually creates a pawn chain in these pawn structures and puts pressure on the semi-open e-file). White can develop the pieces (5.Nc3), and after Black improves the g8-Knight to f6 (5…Nf6), White can assault that Knight with the c1-Bishop (6.Bg5). Then, Black can unpin themselves with 6…Be7 and White can strengthen their pawn structure since the dark square is out (7.e3 would also open up the light square Bishop to castle). Black can castle (7…O-O), and White can improve the f1-Bishop to d3 (8.Bd3) to castle shortly. Black can pin White’s Knight by going 8…Bg4 and White can try to kick that away with 9.h3. Once the Black Bishop remains on the same diagonal (9…Bh5), White can voluntarily allow Black to capture on f3 with the Bishop and remain with doubled pawns in the Kingside to strike back on the open g-file. Of course, White would have to castle in the long side to put their King into safety in these cases. Once 10…Bxf3 occurs, White can capture it with the g-pawn (11.gxf3).

From here, White could castle in the short side and play a h4-pawn push with Rdg1 to launch a fierce attack on the enemy King. The rival would also aim to eliminate this attack and push their a- and b-pawns to fight back on the queenside.

One sample line where White goes with 3.g3 could be 3…Nf6 (Improving the Knight), 4.Bg2 (Getting ready to castle in the short side), 4…Be7 (Also getting ready to castle), 5. O-O, 5…O-O, and 6.d4. Here, Black could capture the c-pawn (6…dxc4), and White could assault the c-pawn with the Queen (7.Qc2 would be an ideal way to do this). Then, Black can attempt to play 7…a6 to play b5 to hold on to the c5-pawn. White can prevent b5 with 8.a4. After White improves the c8-Bishop to d7 (8…Bd7) with the idea of Bc6 (matching the strong g2-Bishop), White can capture the c4-pawn (9.Qxc4).

These positions can be pretty strategic, where White tries to oppress from the c-file and Black aims to utilize White’s backward e-pawn by creating a blockade on e4-square.

Caro-Kann formation: 2.c4 c6

It begins once Black plays the quiet c6-pawn push. This variation often transitions to Slav Defense because Black seeks a flexible but solid pawn structure with c6- and d5-pawns.

Reti Opening Caro-Kann formation


Both popular 3.d4 and 3.cxd5 lines transition to Slav defense. In those lines, Black aims to put the c8-Bishop outside of the pawn chain, and White seeks to assault the b7-pawn with threats such as Qb3.

If White plays 3.e3, Black can reply with 3…Nf6. Then, White can play the typical 4.d4, and it would also transition to the Slav. Here, Black can play 4…Bf5, and after 5.Qb3 is played (with the intention of Qxb7), the enemy can meet this with 5…Qb6. It is important to note that capturing the b6-Queen and doubling up Black’s pawn structure is often not favorable due to the semi-open file for Black. In those cases, b4-square would be hard to defend, and there could be tactics on c2 (combined with f5-Bishop and a Knight on b4-square).

White can develop their pieces regularly, such as Nc3, Be2, and castle. These games can be highly strategic.

Common Traps

Reti Opening Trap

This trap starts after Black plays an unorthodox move with 2…Nf6. Then, White plays g3 with the idea of fianchettoing the f1-Bishop on g2 (3.g3). Then, Black improves the c8-Bishop to f5 (3…Bf5). Here, after White captures the d5-pawn (4.cxd5), if Black takes it back with the Knight (4…Nxd5), White can play e4, forking the Bishop and the Knight (5.e4). This would win a piece because after 5…Bxe4, 6.Qa4+ would pick up the e4-Bishop.

Pros and Cons of playing Reti System

Pros Cons
White can establish a strong center in some positions. As a hypermodern opening, White might suffer from a lack of space in some positions.
Some dynamic lines can help players to improve their tactical skills. Reti Opening may require a high level of positional understanding in certain scenes.
Players can surprise their opponents with this line. It requires deep study for all the possible replies by Black.
The opening often gives unbalanced scenes and opportunities for both sides. Black can stay solid and keep the game in a controlled zone.


The Reti Opening is a hypermodern opening where White aims to strike back with the flank pawns. It allows chaotic scenes for strategic and tactical plays. Both sides can create many opportunities and prove themselves. Due to its positional nature, it can transition to lines such as English Opening. Hence, players need to be wary of the nature of similar openings and utilize the nuances during the games.

Written by
Emre Sancakli, Сhess Coach
has a rating of 2400+ on and, making him one of the top 5000 players in the world. He teaches many chess enthusiasts and even creates educational courses. As a writer, he keeps bringing his 'A game' to the content you will face on this website.
Ask Question


Is the Reti a good opening?

Yes, the Reti Opening is considered a good opening. It’s flexible, leads to unbalanced positions, and is used by players of all levels, including grandmasters.

How do you deal with a Reti Opening?

To effectively counter the Reti Opening, focus on controlling the center, developing your pieces actively, and maintaining a solid pawn structure. Be prepared for various pawn structures and stay flexible in your strategy.

What is the best response to the Reti Opening?

The best response to the Reti Opening is subjective and varies based on a player’s style. However, common responses include advancing the d5 pawn to control the center or mirroring the Reti with Nf6, aiming for a symmetrical and balanced position.

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