French Defense

The French Defense is known for its firm and positional nature. After the White party advances their pawn two squares forward (1.e4), instead of picking a conventional approach, the opposing side chooses to go for 1…e6 and gives up the middle dominance to fight back.

French Defense

It takes its origin from a specific correspondence match played in Paris against the UK’s London in the 1800s. Despite its long record, French Defense was only after the mid-1900s that it was beheld as a formidable weapon by the elites. Due to its strategic and controversial nature to create unbalanced scenes, it is now widely used at a high level to have a cunning battle in their matches.

Winning Percentage on Both Sides

Like the others, most masters yield consistent results with the French Defense, but different lines can give far more decisive results.

Results Rate
Victory for White 35%
Draw 40%
Victory for Black 25%

Most low levels get specific outcomes from a lack of understanding of nuances and contexts.

Results Rate
Victory for White 48%
Draw 4%
Victory for Black 48%

Main Ideas

Noted for its tortuous type, French Defense grants many stages to seize the action. Both parties do it by ensuing in a mazy and often awry pawn-structure.

The White side mostly aims for a firmer and more spread-out route to keep their edge. To do that, they seek to limit the rival’s actions and create long-term frailties. The idea often lies in a vital plan where the assault is on the short side. And the rival should stop it by going for middle pawn assaults and aid it with the rest of the pieces as best as possible.

Black side, on the other hand, often looks to create tension and tactical chances. To do that, they must locate every piece in the ideal places and prevent the rival from improving. e6 allows reining in the d5 and contesting middle space by going c5. By having a pawn structure like this, all the forces are aimed at assaulting d4.

However, French Defense is not without its challenges. If not mindful, the White side can overextend with their army. This can lead to frailty in their pawn construction. At the same time, the rival can struggle to find viable places for the pieces. This can lead to a lack of scheme and potential frailties in their safety.

French Defense Theory

French Defense often holds a closed and positional game, with both sides slowly advancing their pieces to gain an edge. The Main Line can evolve into three diverse routes:

1) The Classical Variation is one of these routes of French Defense, often leading to a closed game. Both parties aim to rein over e4 and try to outplay the other. It requires a deep study for both parties since both can fall into some pitfalls.

2) The Winawer is the second of these routes. It often leads to a more dynamic game with an asymmetrical pawn structure. Losing the c3 is inevitable after the Bb4 move. Hence, both sides seize their chances in complex and risky scenes.

3) The Rubinstein is the last of the mentioned routes. It often leads to a more open game. Both parties have chances to create firm constructions and different types of ideas. The game can be vastly chaotic or simple and strategic out of the blue. It can also pass to the ending very quickly.

The Advance Variation is a conventional approach other than the mentioned tracts. Both parties have pros and cons, and knowing these is vital. Space plays a big role in all the variations. The black side needs to place its pieces in the right places, whereas the rival has to stop them.

The Exchange Variation is a more calm and known as a boring option of French Defense. The game is almost even, and both parties need to come up with some ideas. It can also pass quickly to the ending.

The Tarrasch is a firm approach where Bb4 is off the table. In contrast to that route, this one is much more strategic. Both parties have to know the key concepts and place their pieces wisely.

Main Line: 2…d5 3.Nc3

It is the most chosen option in the opening after the pawn advancements (2.d4 and 2…d5). Going for this route (3.Nc3) aims to oppress on d5 and have the options open. After this attempt, the opposing side has several choices.

French Defense - Main Line

The two most beloved tries among the masters are 3…Bb4 and 3…Nf6. Both of them will be shown in this article. 3…dxe4 is another attempt that is not as sound at a high level due to its simplicity. Yet, it is often chosen at the low level and hence, it will also be included. All three routes often lead to diverse types of games.
Other than these three tracts, 3…Nc6 (by oppresing d4, aiming to go dxe4 and Q– or Nxd4) and 3…Be7 (a pliant choice with the idea of waiting for the opposing side to show their hands. Also, getting ready to connect e8-h8) are also possible two attempts.

Classical Variation: 3…Nf6

The line starts with the other party claiming the middle (3…Nf6) and starts a fight over d4. From this moment on, there are several paths possible. 4.e5 (kicking the f6-Knight) and 4.Bg5 (with the menace of e5 and taking on f6) are two of the most beloved ones.

French Defense - Classical Variation

After 4.e5, 4…Nfd7 is almost forced. If 4…Ne4 is chosen, 5.Nxe4 (eliminating that piece and ruining the rival’s construction) is an instant blow. After 5…dxe4, 6.Bc4 (to prevent Qd5 and circle the e4), 6….Nc6 (simply improving), and 7.c3 (guarding d4 for good), results with Q- c2 or e2 with the idea of Qxe4.  And if Ng8 is chosen, 5.a3 can now be picked to avoid Bb4 attempts. Also, c5 is no longer strong due to the need for rein over that place. Because if 5…c5, now 6.dxc5 Bxc5 (simply retaking) and 7.Nxe4.
Hence, 4…Nfd7 is often the viable move. After that, 5.f4 (guarding e5 twice and avoiding f6 ideas) is the top choice among masters. 5.Nce2 is also preferred with the idea of c3 (having a smooth pawn construction and guarding d4). Regardless, the rival usually goes for c5, as in most lines.
One sample can be 5.f4, 5.c5 (as expected), 6.Nf3 (an improving attempt, also guarding d4) and 6…Nc6 (increasing the oppression over d4). Of course, the battle is obvious, and 7.Be3 (now that dxc5 can be an attempt) is undoubtedly preserving the menaced place. Then, 7…cxd4 8.Nd4 and 8…Qb6 (assaulting d4 and e3 at the same time) or Bc5 (the same idea as Qb6) lead the game to a fierce battle.

Winawer Variation: 3…Bb4

As the most chaotic line in French Defense, this one starts the same as Classical until 3…Bb4 is played. With this decisive approach, Black aims to go for Bxc3 and take the reins over the keys e4 and d5. Since it is inevitable to lose Nc3, it is important not to go for a wrong idea, such as 4.Bd2.

French Defense - Winawer Variation

If 4.Bd2 is chosen, the rival can go for 4…dxe4. 5.Nxe4 (taking the pawn back) does not work due to 5…Qxd4. It is key to notice that e4 is under assault. Hence, 6.c3 would be a big failure due to 6…Qxe4+. Since the enemy seized the activity, this whole line is not advised. Since we addressed the issue (e4 being under menace), the most proper approaches are either 4.e5 (guarding it by moving it forward and maintaining the rein over the space), 4.exd5 (getting rid of the assaulted pawn), or other attempts (4.a3 or 4.Bd3) that lead to a very chaotic nature.

4.e5 can be regarded as one of the principled attempts. Then, 4…c5 can follow as in the other lines. 5.a3 (kicking the b4) 5…Bxc3 and 6.bxc3 would leave a pervasive theme where all the pieces can join (with ideas such as Qg5 and Bd3) in the short side for White. At the same time, the rival can expand in the long side by Qa5 and b5 and create their chances. Regardless of choice, the game will become a complex battle for both sides.

Rubinstein Variation: 3…dxe4 4.Nxe4

The line starts as 3…dxe4 to eliminate the e4-pawn, and 4.Nxe4 intends to retake it at that location. The main idea of this chess opening is to avoid all the complexity we can count and have a simpler and more secure path for both sides.

French Defense - Rubinstein Variation

From here, Black has a couple of options. The most used ones are 4…Nd7 (to support c5) and 4…Bd7 (with the idea of Bc6 and eyeing the ‘h1-a8’) among the masters. 4…Nf6 is a common error at the low level and should be avoided due to 5.Nxf6. After 5…Qxf6, both 6.Nf3 and Bd3 are great since the Qf6 is misplaced, and the game goes in the wrong direction for Black due to a lack of advancement.

After 4…Nd7 and 5.Nf3 (a simple improving move), 5…Ngf6 can be chosen because, after 6.Nxf6, 6…Nxf6 is possible. From here, White aims to go for c3 and create a firm pawn construction, go for bd3 (because it belongs to ‘b1-h7’), and short castle with the aim of expanding over the long side. The rival can choose to go for Be7 (to connect e8-h8), c5 (to assault on d4), and the short castle and try to outplay the opposing side strategically.

Advance Variation: 3.e5

The variation starts with 3.e5, not attending Nc3, and going for a fast approach for the rein over the middle. By the space benefit, this attempt prevents the rival from going for the casual Nf6. Due to the limited number of places to place their pieces, the enemy often has to go for c5.

French Defense - Advance Variation

As the most preferred try, 3…c5 (attacking d4 and getting more suitable squares) is the top choice in all levels. Then, 4.c3 is a standard pick to reinforce d4. From here, 4…Qb6 and 4…Nc6 can be chosen in diverse orders. 5.Nf3 is almost automatic to preserve the setup that has been created. Then, 5…Nc6 and 6.a3 or 6.Bd3 are both pretty common. The principal opinion is simple. The White side tries to oppress the rival’s improving abilities. The enemy often goes from Ne7 to Nf5, increasing the oppression over d4. g4 is a typical move to take the reins over f5, which can be followed by h4 and a complex game.

Exhange Variation: 3.exd5

It starts with an unambitious attempt, 3.exd5. This line often holds a game where both parties keep the same pawn structure without any instability. It is often chosen by people who aim to go for a fast ending by eliminating the first phase of the opening.

French Defense - Exhange Variation

3…exd5 is almost always chosen by every level. From here, White typically goes for 4.Nf3, 4.Bd3, and 4.c3, creating a safe home for the pieces. Also, it is vital to maintain the pawn structure (c4 move can backfire due to the frailty on d4) if the exact continuation is unknown. The rival, in the meanwhile, usually takes the same approach. 4…Nf6, and then 5…c6, 6…Bd6 with 7…Qc7 and 8…Nd7 and the short castle, are casual symmetrical attempts.

One sample line can be 4.Nf3 (basically Improving and guarding d4), 4…Bd6 (improving to lookout at h2) 5.Bd3 (similar ideas with Bd6, eyeing on h7) and 5…Nf6. From here, 6. 0-0 0-0 can be chosen to get into the safety, and the opposing side can pick to make the same attempt. Then, 7.Bg5 can be tried to oppress on f6, and the same reply can occur with 7…Bg4.

Since f3 is under assault, it must be guarded by something other than d1 to liberate it. This often occurs by 8.Nbd2, and again, the enemy can replicate it by 8…Nbd7. After that, both sides will try to go for c3-c6 and Qc2-Qc7 to oppress the rival’s h7-h2. However, it is quite even; hence, the person who slips first will pay the price.
One thing to note is that this approach is not advised for the lower levels due to the lack of obvious concepts.

Tarrasch Variation: 3.Nd2

The line starts with 3.Nd2, removing the Bb4 possibility for good. By this approach, maintaining the pieces and preserving the pawn structure intact is intended. The nature of the scene turns more strategic for both parties, where c5 is still on the air to assault d4.

French Defense - Tarrasch Variation

After here, the most preferred routes are 3…c5 (with the thematic concept) and 3…Nf6. Also, 3…Nc6 (leaving the c5 move and aiming for a more flexible option) is also used by some people. If 3…c5 is chosen, 4.exd5 is a simple and effective response. Then, the enemy can retake both ways. After 4…Qxd5 and Ngf3, the rival can go for 5…cxd4, and an even game can be reached with different goals for both parties. If 3…Nf6 is chosen, 4.e5 is very similar to the Classical variation, with Knight being in a different place than c3. This gives different options, including the safe and preferred 5.c3.

Pros and Cons

Pros Cons
Black’s pawn chain (e6-d5-c5) provides a robust foundation for future lines. The c8-bishop often becomes a problem piece for Black, being hemmed in by its own pawns.
Especially in the Winawer or the Classical variations, Black can aim for sharp counterplay. White claims more space, especially in the Advance variation.
There are multiple sub-variations (Winawer, Tarrasch, Advance, Classical, Rubinstein, Exchange etc.), allowing Black to choose move orders based on personal style or to avoid an opponent’s preparation. White may achieve the e5 break in Advance variation, leading to potential kingside attacking chances.
Experienced players can catch opponents off guard by navigating into lesser-known lines, providing potential over-the-board advantages. In some lines, White maintains a strong central presence, making it harder for Black to break free.

Traps in French Defense

Like many chess openings, the French Defense holds many pitfalls that players need to be careful of.


It begins with the Advance, after 3..c5 is chosen, 4.c3 is played. 4…Nc6, 5.Nf3 and 5…Qb6 are all pretty casual. 6.Bd3 (improving move) sets up the bait. d4 seems to be frail; however, it is not. If the rival does not seize the Queen’s guidance on d4, they can fall into the trap by going 6…cxd4 7.cxd4 and the big mistake 7…Nxd4 will lose a minor piece. If the enemy is still unaware of the situation and replies to 8.Nxd4 with 8…Qxd4, the release of the guard occurs by 9.Bb5+, which Qxd4 will follow.


This one starts with Rubenstein, after 4…Bd7, 5.Nf3, and a casual 5…Bc6 is met with 6.Bd3. From here, 6…Nf6 is a huge error because 7.Nxf6 will force the rival to go for 7…gxf6 and ruin the pawn construction. If not, they go for 7…Qxf6, 8.Bg5, leaving no room for the Queen. Also, Bxf3 doesn’t work due to the simple Qd2 (guarding g5 and maintaining the menace on f6).

Yet another Rubinstein variation snare is on the reach. But instead, this one starts with 4…Bd6. Then, 5.Bd3 is placed at its ideal lookout spot. 5…Ne7 is then followed to locate itself somewhere else. 6.Bg5 is then considered an unexpected bait to release the fire to the opposing side. If the rival doesn’t seize the danger and castles short side to be safe, 7.Nf6+ is a killing blow to send all the pieces to the assault on the enemy.

From here, 7…gxf6 is a must, and 8.Bxf6 (simply re-taking the material) is caging the g8 for further cavalry. Since the e7-Knight is desperate and unable to act due to the menace on d8, 8…Qd7 falls into the 9.Bh7+, which Qh5+ and Qh8 will follow.

Famous games on French Defense

Robert Fischer vs Tigran Petrosian, April – 1970

Aron Nimzowitsch – Frank James Marshall, February – 1927

Siegbert Tarrasch vs Semion Alapin, France – 1902


The French Defense is a viable chess opening, giving diverse goals for both parties. It is used at a high level for various reasons and includes deep theories. Although learning and studying these complicated concepts at the beginner level is somewhat tricky, they contain ideas every player can understand and implement. It is advised not to play the dull version of it, as seeing the different types of set-ups and patterns is what will improve the low levels.

Written by
Emre Sancakli, Сhess Coach
has a rating of 2400+ on and, making him one of the top 5000 players in the world. He teaches many chess enthusiasts and even creates educational courses. As a writer, he keeps bringing his 'A game' to the content you will face on this website.
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How strong is the French Defense?

The French Defense is a solid and strategic choice, respected for its robust structure and ability to lead to complex positions.

What is the weakness of the French Defense?

Its main weakness is the limited scope of the black’s light-squared bishop on c8, often hindered by its own pawns, leading to potential problems in piece development

Is the French Defense aggressive?

The French Defense is typically more defensive and strategic than aggressive, focusing on solid position building rather than immediate attacks.

It’s quite popular at all levels of play, offering a good balance between solidity and complexity, making it a frequent choice in tournaments.

Is the French Defense good for beginners?

Yes, it’s suitable for beginners, as it teaches important concepts like pawn structure, space control, and strategic planning.

Is the French Defense tactical or positional?

The French Defense is primarily positional, emphasizing a strong pawn structure and strategic planning, though it can lead to tactical skirmishes in certain variations.

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