Sicilian Defense

Sicilian Defense is well-known for its wild and complex nature. After the White side advances their pawn two squares forward (1.e4King’s Pawn Opening), the opposing side chooses not to follow symmetry but instead chooses a path that will cause chaos and unbalance by going 1…c5.

Sicilian Defense

Taking its origins in Sicily, a city in Italy, it is thought to have been improved and used by players who lived there in the 1600s. Sicilian Defense was introduced to the public many times by different writers and masters over the centuries, from the 1800s. However, Sicilian Defense was only noticed in the 1950s when world-class players used it as a lethal weapon in their fierce matches. Since its debut, it has been used to claim an edge without facing dry positions. Due to its fickle nature, elite players now use it as a win-or-lose tool.

Winning Percentage on Both Sides

Most masters show on-par results on average, but various lines can cause much more decisive outcomes.

Results Rate
Victory for White 32%
Draw 42%
Victory for Black 26%

Most low levels show sharp results due to the lack of nuances and grasp of the lines.

Results Rate
Victory for White 48%
Draw 4%
Victory for Black 48%

Main ideas of the Sicilian Defense

Famed for its complex nature, Sicilian Defense creates many risks for both sides, leading to sharp and uncertain scenes. Any wrong verdicts shortly can worsen the situation, and many players do in-depth study and routines to avoid these pitfalls.

White can often seize the game’s course and flow with the right play. Positionally, long-term pawn targets that are poorly guarded can be created, as well as tactical efforts and pawn breaks. Also, White can plan more freely in endings due to the robust pawn setup, where the options are curbed for the other side.

On the other hand, Black’s game-changing first move might be seen as the first chance to press d4 and occupy the center. By putting pieces in varied forms, various plans can be made that permit flexible pawn setups. Players who favor unstable positions can push their rivals into dilemmas, forcing them to make the right choice.

One likely drawback of Sicilian Defense is that it contains many lines that players must study and learn well. White can often overextend in some lines, which can cause losing a couple of pawns. Black can have trouble finding space for their pieces or fail to exchange them.

Sicilian Defense Theory

The Classical Variation is known to be a firm variation for Black. It mostly leads to a closed center and a positional game, with both sides slowly maneuvering their pieces.

The Open Sicilian often leads to sharp and fierce scenes. Both sides need to be alert to seize their shots.

The Najdorf is highly noted and named after a Polish master. It asks for deep notice of theory and tactical skills as both sides fight to claim reign over the board.

The Sicilian Alapin is a lesser-known variation and is named after a Russian master. It often leads to a symmetrical pawn construction and a positional game, with both sides vying to outplay the opposing party.

Closed Sicilian can turn to all sorts of games. It often leads to a closed positional match but can also open up once a couple of swaps occur.

The Accelerated Dragon is known to be sharp and robust, with Black setting to advance their pieces and assault the rival.

The Smith-Morra Gambit is known to be bold by White, giving up a whole pawn to open up files. It can be a bit tricky to play for both sides, as it requires accurate play and a willingness to take risks.

The Grand Prix Attack is famous for its advancing the f-pawn (3.f4) to take control of the center and preparing an attack on Black’s kingside.

Classical Variation: 5. Nc3 d6

It is known as a conventional variation of Sicilian Defense, and the main line starts with both parties advancing their Knights (2.Nf3 and 2…Nc6). Then, the d-pawn is moved forward (3.d4), and both sides fight over that place (3…cxd4 and 4.Nxd4). Once the dust settles, the knights jump over again (4…Nf6 5.Nc3), and a quiet 5…d6 occurs.

Sicilian Defense - Classical Variation

White has several options here; often, the most liked line by masters is 6.Bg5. Then, 6…e6 is mostly preferred due to the need to free c8. After that, 7.Qd2 is a great choice for setting up a long side castle and getting into the safety. From here, 7…a6 (with the idea of expanding over the long side and aiming for b5 and b4 advances) or 7…Be7 (to free the path between e8 and h8 to castle in the next move) can be chosen with two distinct ideas.

White usually wants to launch a strong assault over the rival by pushing f4 and rolling pawns forward to kick the defense nearby the short side. Since the pawns are not shielding the King, they can be used as a fierce weapon to harm the opposing side. The opponent often seeks to push the flank pawns (a6 – b5 and b4) and stack over the c-file (Qc7, Bd7, and Rc8 oppress the c2 once the Nc3 is kicked away).

Open Sicilian: 5. Nc3 g6

The Open Sicilian is known to be a very sharp variation and should be avoided if the players lack a grasp of it. The line starts similarly to the Classical version until 5…g6 is chosen. By playing g6, the entire space is given to complicate matters. The idea is often to place Bg7 and create a firm short side for a safe journey.

Open Sicilian


After such a committal attempt, the game can peter out to an ending after 6.Nxc6 and 6…dxc6. Since the Queens are looking at each other, they can swap each other (7.Qxd8 and 7…Kxd8), and players play an ending. Instead, 6…bxc6 can be chosen in order to avoid trades and dive into a very fickle battle. This line is quite complex and requires hard study before a game.

One sample line can be 6…bxc6 and 7.e5 (kicking the f6). Since there is no good place, it either has to retreat to g8 or go to h5. 7…Ng8 is mostly chosen in the masters league, with 8.Bc4 followed. To untangle the short side, 8…Bg7 is a wise pick. After advancing the heavy artillery (9.Qf3), f7 is under assault with a fierce plan. 9…e6 to block the menace on the ‘a2-g8’ diagonal creates holes in the f6 and e6. And after 10.Bf4 (guarding e5 against g7), Knight can jump over d6 (by Ne4-Nd6) and cause issues for the rival.

Sicilian Najdorf: 5. Nc3 a6

As the most prominent Variation in Sicilian Defense, this one starts the same as Classical until 5…a6 is played. With this flexible approach, Black aims to look out for the opposing side’s next attempt. The minor pieces can be located in various ways according to the rival.

Sicilian Defense - Najdorf Variation


After 5…a6, the most chosen attempts in high-level are 6.Be3 (with ideas of Qd2, f3, and putting the King to safety on the long side) and 6.Bg5 (oppressing f6 and menacing to ruin the pawn construction and aiming for f4). After 6.Bg5 e6 (7.Bxf6 and Qxf6 are all they can ask for) is the top pick to maintain a healthy pawn setup. If 6.Be3 is chosen, 6…e5 is a direct assault on d4 and forces it to go away to either b3 or f3. The d6 will be targeted in these lines by putting heavy artillery over the d-file.

One sample variation can be 6. Be3 (advancing it to an ideal place), 6…e5 (kicking the d4-Knight), 7.Nb3 (bringing it into safety), 7…Be6 (clearing the way for the c-file) and 8. f3 (guarding e4 and preparing g4) can be tried. 8…Be7 (simply connecting the e8 to h8 to castle). From this moment, both sides will aim to put their King into different places and move with a-b and f-g-h pawns to create a fierce assault on the rival. 9.Qd2 (binding d2 to e3 and connecting the a1 to e1) and 9…O-O10. O-O-O completes the improvement for both parties. The next try will be g4-h4-h5-g5 and b5 Rc8 Qc7 b4 for each side.

Sicilian Alapin: 2. c3 d5

The variation starts as 2.c3 to maintain d4, and 2…d5 intends to oppress e4. The main idea of this variation is to avoid all the required studies and seek a different sort of setup for both sides.

Sicilian Alapin


Since the e4 is under threat, the most popular attempt is 3.exd5, which is replied to by 3…Qxd5. After that, utilizing e3 by 4.d4 is almost always preferred to strike and pave the way for pieces to improve themselves. From that moment, 4…cxd4 (leaving a vulnerable alone pawn), 4…Nf6 (simply improving the Knight), or 4…Nc6 (oppressing d4 by a menace of capturing) are three considerable choices.

Usually, both sides improve their pieces toward the middle and try to castle. One sample line could be 4…Nc6, 5.Nf3 (securing the d4), 5…Nf6 6.Be2 (connecting e1 and h1 to castle on the short side), 6.e6 (avoiding c4-d5 pawn construction and opening up f8-Bishop). Then, both sides can improve their assets and have a positional battle.

Closed Sicilian: 1. e4 c5 2. Nc3

The variation starts with 2.Nc3, not attending a d4-pawn break where several trades occur. 2…Nc6 is the most common reply, and the second most popular is 2…d6. White typically aims to attack on the short side by moving the pawns forward, whereas Black aims to create chances on the long side by moving the a-b-c pawns down the board.

Closed Sicilian

One sample line could be 2…Nc6 3.g3 (preparing for Bg2), 3…Rb8 (preparing for b5), 4.Bg2, 4…B5 (expanding on that side) 5.a3 (stopping b4), 5.g6 (with the intention of Bg7). After here, improving attempts such as Bg7 Ne2 and Nf6 can lead the game to a positional grind for both sides.

Accelerated Dragon: 4. Nxd4 g6

It starts similar to the Open Sicilian Defense, and the nuance shows itself as 4…g6. By going for this approach, it is intended to put the Black into very safety and keep options flexible. From here, the opposing side has three beloved picks to choose from.

Accelerated Dragon

From this moment, White can choose one of the several routes, such as 5.c4 (binding a strong dominance on d5 with c4 and e4), 5.Nc3 (simply improving), or 5.Nxc6 (simplifying the situation). Ideas are quite similar to the Open variation of this chess opening and can transform each other easily. If 5.c4 is chosen, both sides regularly improve their minor pieces to casual places, and a backward d-pawn can be an issue for the opposing side in the long run, whereas Black can go for a6-b5 and assault from the c-file.

Smith-Morra Gambit: 2. d4 cxd4 3. c3

The variation starts with 2.d4 (without Nf3, this attempt is usually aiming for a very unbalanced game), 2…cxd4 (the challenge is accepted), and 3.c3 (offering a whole pawn for the quick improvement chances and probability of strong activity).


After here, if Black doesn’t want to deal with all the complexity of this line, they can simply go for 3…d3. Once 3…dxc3 occurs, 4.Nxc3 (simply improving) will transform the game into a very sharp and chaotic nature, where White typically goes for a quick assault on the c- and d- files.

One sample line is 4…e6 5.Nf3 d6 (e-d on 6th is the regular pawn structure), 6.Bc4 Nc6 (improving for both sides), 7.Qe2 (preparing Rd1) Be7 8.O-O Nf6 (idea of locating the King to safety) and 9.Rd1. From this moment on, one side will fight for the fragile pawn construction the opposing side possesses, and the other one will try to consolidate.

Traps in Sicilian Defense

Like many chess openings, the Sicilian Defense features several traps that players should know.


It begins with the Alapin, where 2…d6 (opening up the a4-e8 diagonal) is preferred. 3.d4 will be chosen, and after 3…Nf6, the trap is being set by going 4.dxc5. From here, if the opposing side collects the wrong material (which is 4…Nxe4?), 5.Qa4+ will be a double menace on the e8 and e4, resulting in a full minor up in the next turn.


This one starts with Morra; however, the opposing side does not choose to go for 2…cxd4; instead, it goes for 2…d5. After that, 3.Nc3 (an improving move) is played, and 3…dxe4 will be replied by 4.Nxe4. Then, once the rival makes an uncharacteristic play with 4…Nd7, 5.Qe2 will set up the bait. The lurking menace is Nd6#; if the opposing side goes Nf6, they will fall into it.

Famous games on Sicilian Defense

Jose Raul Capablanca vs Davide Marotti, London – 1922

Siegbert Tarrasch vs Henry Bird, Hastings – 1895


The Sicilian Defense is a chaotic chess opening that gives decisive results for both parties. It is used at a high level in win-or-lose situations and contains long and in-depth variations. It is pretty challenging to learn and study these complex ideas at the beginner level; however, it contains lines that every player can learn and apply. People can enhance their pattern recognition and calculation skills by utilizing this chaos machine as an asset and improving their aggressive playing style.

Written by
Emre Sancakli, Сhess Coach
has a rating of 2400+ on and, making him one of the top 5000 players in the world. He teaches many chess enthusiasts and even creates educational courses. As a writer, he keeps bringing his 'A game' to the content you will face on this website.
Ask Question


What is Sicilian Defense good for?

The Sicilian Defense is renowned for its asymmetrical pawn structure and counter-attacking potential. It allows Black to fight for control from the very first moves, challenging White’s center and creating dynamic and complex positions.

Is the Sicilian Defense the hardest?

While not necessarily the hardest, the Sicilian Defense is complex and requires a deep understanding of various lines and strategies. Its richness and variety can be challenging for players at all levels.

Is Sicilian Defense better than Caro-Kann?

Whether the Sicilian Defense is better than the Caro-Kann depends on a player’s style and preferences. The Sicilian often leads to more dynamic and aggressive play, while the Caro-Kann is known for its solidity and strategic depth.

Can white play Sicilian Defese?

The Sicilian Defense is a response to 1.e4 and is played by Black. White cannot initiate the Sicilian Defense, but can prepare for various lines and strategies that arise from it.

Share to friends - Your One Stop Chess Resource
error: Content is protected !!