Sicilian Dragon

The Sicilian Dragon stands out not only as one of chess’s most fiercely competitive and widely embraced initial moves but also as an exceptional means for black to fight for an upper hand when facing white’s King’s Pawn Opening. This opening’s hallmark move of Sicilian Dragon is 5…g6 in the variation of the Sicilian Defense1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 d6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 Nf6 5.Nc3 g6 followed by 6…Bg7.

Sicilian Dragon

The Sicilian Dragon historically took its modern form towards the end of the Romantic Era of chess in the late 1880s. However, it was in the 1950s that the opening acquired the name by which it is recognized today. The Russian chess master, Fyodor Dus-Chotimirsky, who also tutored Alexander Alekhine for a certain period of time, was the godfather of this opening. Dus-Chotimirsky had a keen interest in astronomy and drew inspiration from the resemblance between the arrangement of stars in the Draco constellation and the pawn structure on Black’s kingside in the Sicilian Dragon.

Winning percentages on both sides

Results Rate
Win for white 33%
Draw 43%
Win for black 24%

Key ideas of Sicilian Dragon Variation

The Sicilian Dragon offers black a genuine and pragmatic opportunity to proactively mount a counterattack against white and strive for a victory with black pieces. As this opening leads to highly dynamic and intense positions, the significance of accurate calculations and sharp tactical insight is heightened considerably. Every rose has its thorn, and in the case of the Sicilian Dragon, the price of pursuing victory as Black is the necessity for players to be mindful of the substantial theoretical groundwork required for preparation.

Frequently, when following Sicilian Dragon lines, both sides opt for opposite side castling. Each side will then try to blow up the part of the board where the enemy king has castled. For white, this means initiating a pawn storm with g4-h4, or often sacrificing a pawn with h5 to open up the h-file. Additionally, White seeks opportunities to trade Black’s fianchetto bishop, a pivotal defensive piece. In return, black will capitalize on the open c-file with their rook. Exchange sacrifices on c3 (rook capturing the knight) are highly thematic ideas to demolish white’s camp. Black will also advance the pawn to b5, dislodging white’s main defender, the knight on c3.

How to play the Sicilian Dragon: theoretical lines

Once the typical starting position of Sicilian Dragon is reached after 1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 d6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 Nf6 5.Nc3 g6, which is also the main branching point of the variation, white can choose between the three major resources against the Sicilian Dragon: 6.Be3 and going for the Yugoslav Attack or try the Levenfish Attack with 6.f4. The Yugoslav Attack stands out as the overwhelmingly favored choice for White by a significant margin. Levenfish Attack leads to an atypical structure in the Sicilian Defense due to early 7.e5 after 6.f4 Bg7. If white prefers to keep pace of the game as positional as possible, then the obvious choice would be the Classical Variation 6.Be2, where both sides castle to kingside with 6..Bg7 7.0-0 0-0.

Yugoslav Attack variation: 10.0-0-0


Sicilian Dragon - Yugoslav Attack

By playing 6.Be3, white already reveals their intention of going into Yugoslav Attack Variation. White’s idea is straightforward; they prioritize the development of queenside with moves like Be3,Qd2 and 0-0-0, and start rolling with the pawns on the kingside for an attack. Black will always fianchetto their bishop, 6…Bg7, which is also known as the Dragon Bishop. The premature 6…Ng4?? would not work due to 7.Bb5+, leading to material loss for black. 7.f3 is a multi-purpose move with the idea of reinforcing central pawns but also preparing g4, so that the pawn on g4 won’t be hanging after Qd2. Black gets ready to initiate their own attack on the enemy king after tucking the king away with 7…0-0. 8.Qd2 Nc6 and now white’s two major options are 9.Bc4 and 9.0-0-0, which have been played almost equal number of times. 9.0-0-0 before Bc4 allows black to play 9…d5, an attempt to consolidate their position.

For example, after 10.exd5 Nxd5 11.Nxc6 bxc6 12.Nxd5 cxd5 13.Qxd5 Qc7! and black gets significant dynamic compensation in the form of piece activity. Black’s bishop pair in an open position like this is sure to be nightmare of white’s king, so white should opt for exchanging queens off the board with 14.Qc5 instead of going greedy with 14.Qxa8?! Bf5!, double threat of Qxc2# and Rxa8.

In order to avoid all this …d5 business, white can just play 9.Bc4 instead, which happens to be the principal move. Bishop on c4, not only controls d5, but also puts a pivotal pressure on f7, which might come in handy in the later stages of the attack. Consequently, black is now compelled to proceed deploying their pieces since …d5 is now off the table, 9…Bd7. After 10.0-0-0 we reach the quintessential arrangement of the Yugoslav Attack. 10.h4 is a conceivable option, but prioritizing king safety is more prudent and principled in this scenario.

Yugoslav Attack Main Line: 12…Nc4

Sicilian Dragon - Yugoslav Attack Main line

Black will usually go offensive by starting with 10…Rc8, which setups various kinds of discovery attacks with the knight on the c-file, such as ..Nxd4 Qxd4 Ng4 idea to overload the queen’s defense of two bishops. Since the light-squared bishop on c4 is now loose, 11.Bb3 is necessary precaution. The mainline continues with 11…Ne5, however 11…Nxd4 sideline is worthy of consideration: 12.Bxd4 b5 13.h4 a5 14.h5 a4 15.Bxf6 exf6 16.Bd5 b4 17.Ne2 f5, resulting in a highly double-edged position.

The primary concept underlying the move 11…Ne5 is to land on c4 to dissamble one of the bishop pairs. Whether white plays 12.h4 or 12.Kb1, black can proceed with 12…Nc4.

An example line would be: 12.h4 Nc4 13.Bxc4 Rxc4 14.h5, opening up the h-file, 14…Nxh5 15.g4 Nf6 16.Bh6, to exchange black’s pivotal defender and weaken dark squares, 16…Nxe4, only move for black to stay in the game, 17.Qe3 (17.Nxe4 Rxd4) Rxc3!, thematic exchange sacrifice in Sicilian Defense, 18.bxc3 Nf6 19.Bxg7 Bxg7 20.Qh6+ Kh8 (20…Kg8?? would be a fatal blunder due to 21.g5 Nh5 22.Rxh5! gxh5 23.Rh1 Qc8 24.Rxh5 Bf5, defending h7, 25.Nxf5 Qxf5 26.g6! Qxg6 27.Rg5 pins and wins the queen).

The resulting position is objectively equal, but black has to be mindful of white’s fierce ideas, like 21.Nf5! Bxf5 (only move as 21…gxf5 22.g5 and mate on h7 is inevitable or 21…Rg8 22.Qxh7! Nxh7 23.Rxh7+ Kxh7 24.Rh1#) 22…gxf5 23.Rdg1 Rg8 and black is holding their position.

Yugoslav Attack Soltis Variation: 12…h5

Sicilian Dragon - Yugoslav Attack Soltis Variation

The most effective way to encounter 12.h4 is to play 12…h5, a move promoted by the American Grandmaster A. Soltis, right away instead of 12…Nc4, slowing white’s attack down before seeking counterplay. Now a pawn break for white is not as easy as before; they may try 13.Bh6, trying to remove the fianchetto bishop, 13…Bxh6 14.Qxh6. Here, black can surprise their opponent with the thematic 14…Rxc3 exchange sacrifice, followed by 15.bxc3 Qa5, exerting pressure on the ruined pawn structure and gaining initiative. White is now forced to be on the defending side after 16.Kb1 b5 or 16…Rc8 with the idea of …Nc4.

Sicilian Dragon Classical Variation: 7.0-0

Sicilian Dragon Classical Variation

Not everyone who comes at the board might be psychologically ready for the thrilling lines of the Yugoslav Attack or may simply want to take a calmer approach to minimize black’s counterattacking chances. The classical Variation, 6.Be2 Bg7 7.0-0 suggests itself to be the most suitable strategy for the players seeking a relatively more peaceful game. After 7…0-0, white needs to deal with the question of where the dark bishop belongs. While 8.Bg5 is possible, a line like 8…Nc6 9.Nb3 Be6 10.f4 b5 11.Bxb5 Nxe4 12.Nxe4 Qb6+ shows why white might prefer to place the dark bishop on e3 rather than g5.

So, 8.Be3 Nc6 and white should decide between 9.Nb3 and 9.Qd2, but both have their advantages and drawbacks.


Sicilian Dragon Classical Variation - 9.Nb3

It is entirely reasonable that white might like to maintain a greater number of pieces on the board, as this approach preserves their offensive capabilities at their peak potential. The main question for black now is where the light square bishop belongs. An argument could be made for each of the following options: 1) 9…a6 10.f4 b5 11.Bf3 Bb7

2) 9…Bd7 or 3) 9…Be6, which is the most played move. 9…Be6 basically focuses on the control of c4. For example: 10.f4 Na5 11.f5 Bc4 or 10…Rc8 11.Kh1 Na5 12.f5 Bc4.

The position has certain imbalances in the pawn structure,e and both sides will focus on exploiting the weak squares arising from the structure.


Sicilian Dragon Classical Variation - 9.Qd2

9.Qd2 mainly connects the rooks and hints at Bh6 ideas in the near future. The downside of this move is that it allows 9…d5, simplifying the position after 10.exd5 Nxd5 11.Nxd5 Qxd5 12.Nxc6 bxc6 13.Qxd5 cxd5 14.Rad1.

Levenfish Variation: 6.f4

Sicilian Dragon Levenfish Variation

The Levenfish Variation with 6.f4 aims to reinforce the idea of pushing e5, dislodging black’s kingside knight. Black wouldn’t want to allow that, so moves like 6…Nc6 and 6…Nbd7 come into consideration. 6…Nc6 is the more active option, which also does not stand on the way of the light square bishop.


Sicilian Dragon Levenfish Variation - 6...Nc6

White has several options here, like capturing the knight, retreating it to f3, or pinning black’s knight. The direct approach of 7.Nxc6 bxc6 8.e5 does not give white the desired outcome because black can hold their position with 8…Nd7, attacking e5, 10.Be3 Rb8 11.Qd2 Rxb2.

The alternative 7.Nf3 does not pose enough challenges for black either: 7.Nf3 Bg7 8.Bd3 Qb6, and now the problems with f4 become more evident. The weakened g1-a7 diagonal is an issue for white.

Also, after 7.Be2, black can consolidate the position with ease: 7…Bg7 8.Be3 (8.0-0 Nxe4 followed by …Nxd4) 8…0-0 9.0-0 Qb6 10.Qd3 Ng4. It can be concluded that the Levenfish Variation is nothing to be scared of for black, as white lacks an ambitious continuation after 6…Nc6.


Sicilian Dragon Levenfish Variation - 6...Bg7

Ignoring white’s idea of e5 is not the most sensible approach for black. For example, 6…Bg7 7.e5 dxe5 8.fxe5 Nfd7 (8…Nh5 9.Bb5+ Bd7 10.g4 traps the knight) 9.e6!, ruining black’s structure, 9…Ne5 10.exf7+ Nxf7 11.Be3, leaving black in an unpleasant position. The isolated pawn on e7 is likely to be a long-term target.

Common Trap in the Sicilian Dragon

1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 d6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 Nf6 5.Nc3 g6 6.f4 Bg7 7.e5 dxe5 8.fxe5 Ng4?? would be a decisive blunder due to lack of adequate response against 9.Bb5+!. 9…Bd7 hangs the knight, 10.Qxg4, while 9…Kf8 allows the discovery check, 10.Ne6 followed by Qxd8+ winning the queen.

9…Nc6 is not helpful either because of 10.Nxc6 bxc6 11.Bxc6+ forking the rook

Pros and Cons

Pros Cons
Presents considerable tactical hurdles for White as they engage in a race towards opposite side castling Heavily theorized, and each inaccuracy in the opening or middlegame stage can cost the game.
The dragon bishop on g7 breathes fire, as it not only defends but also puts pressure on white’s queenside. Demands a high degree of precision in defensive abilities.


The Sicilian Dragon is an iconic chess opening that has experienced periods of popularity throughout the history of the game. Its appeal stems from the fact that it provides Black with a solid means to initiate a counterattack, generating substantial interest in the opening. Consequently, the Sicilian Dragon underwent exhaustive analysis, which, in turn, contributed to a decline in its popularity at the highest echelons of chess. Nevertheless, the Sicilian Dragon endures as one of the most formidable ways to confront the 1.e4 opening move.

Written by
Deniz Tasdelen, National Master
National Master with over 20 years of experience. He has participated in many prestigious tournaments, including the European and World Youth Chess Championships.
Ask Question


Is the Sicilian Dragon good opening?

Yes, the Sicilian Dragon is a highly respected and dynamic opening in chess, favored for its asymmetrical pawn structure and active piece play. It’s especially popular among players who enjoy sharp, tactical battles.

Why is it called the Dragon Sicilian?

The Sicilian Dragon is named for the Dragon variation, which is characterized by the pawn structure on the h7-g6-f7-e7 squares, resembling a dragon’s scales. This terminology was coined due to the visual similarity of this formation to the mythical creature.

Is Dragon Sicilian aggressive?

Absolutely, the Sicilian Dragon is known for its aggressive and combative nature. It allows Black to actively contest the center and launch counterattacks, often leading to complex and sharp positions.

How to do the Sicilian Dragon in chess?

The Sicilian Dragon is played by Black and begins with the moves 1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 d6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 Nf6 5.Nc3 g6. This sets up the Dragon’s typical pawn structure and aims for rapid development and control of the center.

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