Dutch Defense

The Dutch Defense is a chess opening that starts with the moves 1.d4 f5. The opening is considered more of a sideline opening against the Queen’s Pawn Opening (1.d4) than a mainline opening, but it usually results in rich and dynamic attacking positions.

The earliest recordings of the defense date back to the 18th century, but it has been played at high-level chess competition only occasionally and only seen once in a World Championship Match, which was played between Mikhail Botvinnik and David Bronstein in 1951.

Winning Percentages on both sides

Results Rate
Win for white 37%
Draw 39%
Win for black 24%

Main Ideas of Dutch Opening

Oftentimes, as a player playing with the black pieces, you want to equalize the position as quickly as possible. Openings such as the Berlin Defense or the Petrov Defense, which prioritize staying safe without any positional weaknesses, could be named as examples of such a modest approach. To aim for more than that, you need to create an imbalance in the position. The Dutch Defense does exactly this; by playing f5, it creates an asymmetrical structure as early as on the first move. This makes it a great opening choice for players who want to play aggressively and play for a win.

The main idea behind the move 1…f5 is to claim control over the light-squares in the center and a firm grip on the e4-square. The position arising after only one move is actually revealing already what game strategy both sides will be employing throughout the game; both sides will expand on the sides of the pawn they have advanced (d4 and f5), meaning that black will try to launch a kingside attack, usually by bringing the queen to h5 via e8 and playing Ne4, which allows a rook lift such as Rf6-Rh6. In this regard, the opening can be seen as a sister opening to the Queen’s Indian opening, as they share a similar setup in many cases. On the other hand, white will be defending on the kingside and at the same time trying to expand on the queenside with c4-b4, followed by Rc1 and c5 to put pressure on the c-file.

Dutch Defense Theory

When studying the Dutch Defense Theory, it is more effective to approach the opening as an opening system with certain typical setups rather than a strict set of moves. There are three main systems in the Dutch Defense that black can choose for their setup, and these are mostly characterized by the pawn structure.

In the so-called Leningrad Dutch, black has their pawns advance to g6 and d6 squares, while the Stonewall Variation is marked by the pawn arrangement with d5-e6-c6. There is also Classical Dutch with black pawns on d6 and e6, which is also called fluid center because it gives black the flexibility to go in any direction, whether transposing to Stonewall with d5 or transposing to Leningrad Dutch with e5 later on. All of these systems can follow different move orders, and in most of the cases, white will reply with g3-Bg2-c4-Nc3 in some order. In addition to the first two systems named above, in this article we’ll also cover a sideline called Staunton Gambit, which is defined by 1.d4 f5 2.e4.

Leningrad variation: 6…d6 7. 0-0 Qe8

Dutch Defense - Leningrad Variation

In the Leningrad variation, both sides usually fianchetto their kingside bishops. The main starting position of this variation is 6…d6 7.0-0 Qe8 and it can be reached via different move orders:

a) 1.d4 f5 2.g3 Nf6 3.Bg2 g6 4.Nf3 Bg7 5.0-0 0-0 6.c4 d6 7.Nc3 Qe8

b) 1.d4 f5 2.c4 Nf6 3.g3 g6 4.Bg2 Bg7 5.Nc3 0-0 6.Nf3 d6 7.0-0 Qe8

For now, we’ll walk through the first set of moves given as a), because 2. g3 is the most common reply against the Dutch Defense. Both sides typically continue developing their kingside pieces with a kingside fianchetto bishop: 2…Nf6 3.Bg2 g6 4. Nf3 Bg7 5.0-0 0-0. After the castle, both sides will try to fight for control of the center: 6.c4 d6, preparing e5 later. 7.Nc3 Qe8, supporting the e5 push. White will typically try to prevent e5 by playing 8.d5 in order to capture the pawn en passant, if black plays e5 directly. But playing d5 loses control over the c5 square, and black will take advantage of that by playing 8..Na6 with the idea to play Nc5 or even Nce4 later on. White usually reacts by playing 9.Rb1 Bd7 10.b4

One of the main ideas of white would be to go Nd4 to increase control over the e6 square as well as open up the diagonal for the light-squared bishops. So to prevent that, black will try to undermine white’s strong pawn chain in the center by initiating some pawn trades with either …c5 or …c6. Both sides will continue to fight for the center.

Stonewall Variation: 4…d5 5. c4 c6

Dutch Defense Stonewall Variation

The most standard move order to reach the typical Stonewall Variation structure would be 1.d4 f5 2.g3 Nf6 3.Bg2 e6 4.Nf3 d5 5.c4 c6. The main idea behind this variation, as the name suggests, is to have a very solid control on the light squares in the center like a wall, especially the e4 square, which allows black to play …Ne4 later. However, there are two main downsides to this variation: firstly, black suffers from significant weaknesses on the dark squares. White will typically try to exchange black’s dark-squared bishop in order to eliminate any piece that can defend this color complex: 6.0-0 Bd6 7.b3 0-0 8.Ba3 and now black cannot avoid the trade-off of the dark-squared bishops.

For this reason, instead of 7…0-0, black usually responds with 7…Qe7 to prevent 8.Ba3, followed by …a5 and a4 to open up the file for the rook on a8. On the other hand, black has another main issue to solve: the so-called bad bishop on c8. It takes many moves to bring the light-squared bishop into the game. A typical maneuver would be Bd7-Be8-Bh5, but fianchettoing the bishop with …b6-Bb7 is also common. Despite two major positional issues black has in the Stonewall Variation, black relies mainly on his attacking chances with ideas like Qe8 to bring the queen to h5 with Qh5 and support the advance of the g-pawn to g5, or supporting the attack with Ne4, which frees the route for a rook lift with Rf6-Rh6.

Staunton Gambit: 2. e4 fxe4 3. Nc3 Nf6 4. Bg5

Dutch Defense - Staunton Gambit

In the Staunton Gambit, white offers a pawn sacrifice with 2.e4, in order to exploit the weakness of the King’s short diagonal as quickly as possible. Black has no choice but to accept the gambit because ignoring the gambit with 2…Nf6 3.exf5 simply loses a pawn without any compensation, and defending the pawn with 2…e6 gives white a huge advantage after 3.exf5 3.exf5 4.Bd3. So, after 2…fxe4, white will continue to put pressure with 3.Nc3 Nf6 and 4.Bg5 with the idea of eliminating black’s most valuable defender, which is the knight on f6.

Black wants to play d5 to defend d5 quickly, but at the moment it would lose a pawn due to 4…d5? 5.Bxf6 exf6 6.Qh5+ g6 7.Qxd5. Therefore, black plays 4…Nc6 instead, so that in such lines, they can capture the d4 pawn with Nxd4. A standard way that game might continue is: 5.d5 Ne5 6.Qe2 Nf7 7.Bxf6 exf6 8.Ne4 and Qe7. Oftentimes, white will castle queenside, while black will try to exchange queens and get safe.

Pros and Cons of playing the Dutch

Very flexible opening that can be played against almost all openings like 1.Nf3 or 1.c4 expect 1.e4 Weaknesses around the king as well as King’s Short diagonal caused by the removal of the f7 pawn.
Attacking chances for black to play for a win. Potential weaknesses on dark squares.

Common Traps in Dutch Opening

Trap №1

1.d4 f5 2.Bg5 h6 3.Bh4 g5 4.Bg3 f4, now black might be thinking that the bishop is trapped, but after 5.e3 fxg3 white can checkmate black with 6.Qh5#.

Trap №2

1.d4 f5 2.c4 e6 3. Nc3 d5 4.cxd5 exd5 5.Qc2 c6 6.Nf3 Nf6 7.Bg5 Bd6 loses a two pawns on d5 and b7 due to 8.Bxf6 Qxf6 9.Nxd5! cxd5 10.Qxc8+

Famous games on Dutch Defense

№1 Reuben Fine vs Efim Bogoljubov, Nottingham 1936

№2 Tigran Petrosian vs Palle Nielsen, Copenhagen 1960


Summing up, the Dutch Defense is highly versatile and a dynamic opening for black that can be used to counter a wide variety of white’s first moves. It enables black to mount an early counterattack in the center and create imbalances on the board. This gives black an opportunity to seize the initiative and play for a win, which is not always possible with other openings played by black. If you’re a risk-taker and enjoy tactical battles, the Dutch Defense might be the right choice for you.

Written by
Deniz Tasdelen, National Master
National Master with over 20 years of experience. He has participated in many prestigious tournaments, including the European and World Youth Chess Championships.
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