Ruy Lopez

Ruy Lopez (Spanish Opening) is a King’s Pawn Opening that is famously known for its long theories and begins with 1.e4, then both sides advance their Knights (2.Nf3 Nc6), the light-squared Bishop advances (3.Bb5). It is called after Ruy López, a chess enthusiast and a priest who created it in the 1500s. Although it wasn’t popular back then when it originated, it increased its popularity around the 1800s once pioneer chess theoreticians realized that it was a firm approach for Black.

Ruy Lopez

This highly strategic chess opening allows both sides to claim the center and various strategic opportunities while maintaining the positional advantage. It is adopted by plenty of the bests, such as the legendary Bobby Fischer.

Winning Percentages on Both Sides

Results Rate
Victory for White 37%
Draw 37%
Victory for Black 26%

Main Ideas

With its subtleties, Ruy Lopez variations present a well-balanced, dynamic game with plenty of opportunities for both sides to select incisive or stiff approaches. This well-researched and well-understood chess opening has a long history and many well-known examples.

Regarding the basic concepts, White typically has the dominance of the center and a firm pawn construction, providing an opportunity to assault the other side’s camp. This frequently happens when Black’s Knight is pressured to maintain possession of the vital squares. The same side can also use its light-squared Bishop to plan a surveillance on the opponent’s short side by pushing Black pieces out of the middle and piling minor pieces nearby the rival.

A likely symmetrical pawn structure typically allows Black to reach equality quickly. It is feasible to force the opponent to play the endgame, like in Berlin, if they don’t react precisely. Black typically generates their own lunging opportunities in the Queenside, retaliating by often building a powerful pawn army that complements the minor pieces.

One potential drawback of Spanish is that it requires beginners to learn properly due to its heavy theoretical knowledge and long combinations. Complex lines usually require deep analysis, which is generally hard for low-levels to manage. Additionally, it is advised to choose sharper alternatives to improve pattern recognition and calculation abilities, which could be problematic if the opposite side chooses a firm approach.

Ruy Lopez Theory

As an ancient line of the Spanish Opening, the Classical variation frequently results in an open position where both players can choose to act tactically or strategically.

Another beloved variation is the Morphy Defense, which removes the threat on Nc6. This line is named after Paul Morphy, who frequently employed this idea.

The Berlin Defense is a variation of the Ruy Lopez that can lead to complex positions full of tactical possibilities, making it an attractive choice for players who prefer creative play. It starts with the move 3. Bb5 Kf6 (click on the link above, we’ve written the article about this variation).

The Exchange Variation of Spanish is often chosen as a weapon for subtle planning. White prefers not to let the Bishop be imprisoned against the pawn storm and instead exchanges it for Nc6. The game subsequently becomes more positional as both sides compete to maintain the essential fragments of the board due to the positional alteration.

The Steinitz Defense variation is characterized by Black pushing d6 to free the light-squared Bishop. This variation may cause several problems for them, as e5 is constantly in jeopardy, and the danger on the ‘a4-e8’ diagonal forces them to make the right choices to untangle this pin.

In the Marshall, Black offers a pawn to utilize the Bishop’s long scopes and increases the momentum in their favor while their opponent attempts to consolidate.
Let’s explore the theory in more detail below.

Classical Variation: 3. Bb5 Bc5

Ruy Lopez - Classical Variation

It is one of the moves considered to be most flexible in Ruy Lopez and the line begins after Black plays 3…Bc5. The primary goal is for both sides to dominate the center by quickly developing everything into active places. Black’s reply of 3…Bc5 aims to advance their dark-squared Bishop outside the pawn construction, usually maintaining the power on d4.

White has several options here and often chooses one of the two common moves (4. O-O and 4. c3). Castling is played in high-level play as it prepares to press on the center. 4. c3 typically prepares 5. d4. Both of them can be played in various move orders, which allows a transposition.

After 4. c3 (also called the Central Variation), the most principled route to go as Black is 4…Nf6. Against an attempt such as 4…d6, 5.d4 holds an immediate menace on Bc4, and the following action is d5 and exploiting the pin on the a4-e8 diagonal. One sample line is 4. c3 d6 5. d4 exd4 (If 5…Bb6, 6. d5 is explosive) 6. cxd3 Bb4+ 7. Kf1 (the idea is that both Bishop and Knight are loose once White doesn’t block) 7…a6 8.Bxc6, bxc6, and 9.Qa4 and both the c6-pawn and Bishop on b4 are under attack.

After 4. c3 Nf6, White has several options (such as 5. O-O, 5.d4 or 5. d3). 5.d4 is probably the most forcing line since if the opponent doesn’t react, they are already significantly worse because of White’s central supremacy. One possible playable line is 5. d4 exd4 6. e5 (assaulting the Knight and pushing it away, it is essential not to put the Knight into a wrong square such as g8 or g4, which can limit its options) 6…Nd5 is playable, and White is happy to take on d4 and then castle. Black usually wants to castle short, kick the Bb5 by playing a6, and push d6 to assault on e5 once the tension is gone.

Morphy Defense: 3. Bb5 a6

Ruy Lopez - Morphy Defense

The Morphy Defense is the most prominent response to the Ruy Lopez, and the line starts with 3…a6, and by playing a6, Black kicks Bb5. Once 4.Bxc6 occurs, Black gains a Bishop pair advantage. The primary aim of this idea is to break the pin on c6 by attacking the Bishop.

One common inaccuracy by White is 4. Bxc6, dxc6, and 5. Nxe5?! which allows the opposing side to go 5…Qd4, threatening the 6…Qxe4 and the 6…Qxe5 simultaneously.

Usually, the most effective plan after 3…a6 is playing 4. Ba4 to claim a slight edge as White. After playing 4. Ba4 Black possesses several choices available, however 4…Nf6 is frequently played as it looks to dominate the central space. Other popular moves include 4…d6 and 4…b5. White put their King into safety and brought their Rook to e1 after 4…Nf6 and prepared d4, aiming to launch some sort of problems in the e-file. This often diverts to a strategic battle where they try to expand on the long side with constructions like b5, Na5, and c5, while the opponent focuses on maintaining the command of space, limiting the opponent’s development options by playing c3 and d4.

Exchange Variation: 4. Bxc6 dxc6

Ruy Lopez - Exchange Variation

As one of the firmest lines in Ruy Lopez, this one starts with 3…a6, followed by 4. Bxc6 and dxc6. By taking on c6, Black remains with ruined pawns but gains a two-bishop benefit. The game can easily transition to an endgame after 5. d4 exd4 6. Qxd4. White usually prefers this line when they want to simplify the position and aim for an equal endgame, where the pawn structure disadvantage of Black is more pronounced.

As mentioned in the Classical Variation, 5. Nxe5 is a mistake due to 5…Qd4. and after 5. O-O, the e5 is under attack; this needs to be dealt with by playing 5…Qf6 or 5…Bd6, and in the meanwhile, White usually had plans of going 6. d4 to improve their game. One sample line is 5. O-O Bd6 (protecting the e5) 6. d4 exd4 7. Qxd4 (attacking g7-pawn and threatening e5 against Nf6) and 7…f6, since White lost the domination of the light squares, making a play like f6 and compromising diagonals is not as bad as it should be for Black.

Steinitz Defense: 3. Bb5 d6 4.d4

Ruy Lopez - Steinitz Defense

The line starts as 3…d6 to support e5, and 4. d4 intends to oppress e5. The primary goal of the Steinitz Defense is to maximize the space by attacking e5. Black typically wants to keep the pawn construction as solid as possible; hence, Fianchetto in the short side to g7 and takes the safe route by going short castle.

Since the Knight is under threat, it is advised to unpin it by going 4…Bd7 and removing the attacker by 4…exd4. By going and advancing the position, Black constructs a firm structure and prevents the opposing player from gaining a strong foothold on the board.

The Modern Steinitz Defense, which includes 3…a6 (the novelty), 4. Ba4 d6 and 5. d4, is considered an improved version of the old Steinitz.

Marshall Attack: 8.c3 d5

Ruy Lopez - Marshall Attack

The Marshall Attack is a popular chess opening with its sharp and dynamic variations, 3…a6 is the first move in the route followed by 4.Ba4 (preventing from being captured) 4…Nf6 (simply improving) and 5. O-O. After that, 5…Be7 6. Re1 and b5 is played. The variation finally is reached after 7.Bb3 O-O 8.c3 and 8…d5. Black usually hopes to receive a strong initiative and action by sacrificing a pawn, and the opposing side tries to consolidate their extra pawn. Once 8…d5 occurs, they are targeting e4 twice and threatening to dominate the center.

The opposing side usually accepts the offer with 9.exd5, which Black answers with 9…Nxd5. White afterwards can take with 10.Nxe5, which the opponent must answer with 10…Nxe5. After 11.Rxe5, the d5, is now attacked by both the Rook on e5 and Bishop on b3, and Black can either defend with 12…c6 or retreat with 12…Nf6. These are typically mandatory for both parties, and White hopes to consolidate the extra d-pawn, while Black often looks to advance their Bishop to effective d6 square and menace the b8-h2 and a8-h1 diagonals by planning Qh4.

Traps in Ruy Lopez

Like the other chess openings, Ruy Lopez has its share of traps that everyone must be wary of:

Noah’s Ark Trap

This trap occurs in Modern Steinitz Defense and follows as 1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. Bb5 a6 4. Ba4 d6 5. d4 (since the Bishop can be kicked away, this move is inaccurate, castling or playing d3 are the two most popular alternatives as White) 5…b5 6. Bb3 Nxd4 7. Nxd4 exd4 8. Qxd4?! (this move causes an irreversible blunder because the Bishop will be trapped after the sequence of moves) 8…c5 9. Qd5 Be6 10. Qc6+ Bd7 11. Qd5 c4.

Mortimer Trap

The Mortimer Trap is a conventional example where Black intentionally makes a seemingly inferior move in order to lure White into a mistake. The trap begins with a typical Ruy Lopez, and after 3…Nf6, 4.d3, finally 4…Ne7?! sets the bait. Black wants opposing side to capture on e5, and once 5.Nxe5 is played out Black replies with 5…c6, and after 6.Ba4 or Bc4, 6…Qa5+ is a check and unstoppable assault to the undefended victim on e5, and 7…Qxe5 is coming soon. And since it is gone regardless, Nxf7 is the top choice to prevent Black from castling rights.

Famous Games on Ruy Lopez

Capablanca vs. Marshall, New York 1918

Kasparov vs. Kramnik, London 2000

Pros and Cons of playing the Ruy Lopez

Pros Cons
Leads to strong central control and development of pieces Can be difficult to master and understand the various nuances
Offers a wide range of variations and possibilities Can lead to a somewhat rigid play style
Provides opportunities for attacking and defending on both sides of the board Can lead to early pawn exchanges and simplification of the game
Can put pressure on opponent’s pawn structure and force weaknesses Opponent may have prepared countermeasures or defenses
Can lead to a more positional and strategic game May require significant preparation to avoid pitfalls and traps


The Ruy Lopez is a traditional and highly strategic chess opening providing opportunities and dynamic gameplay for both sides. Its versatility has been explored throughout the ages until today and is one of the weapons of almost all chess masters once in their careers. Although it is suitable for intermediate to high-level players due to the long and complex strategic lines and variations, it also contains more straightforward variations that can be studied and applied to all levels. It is well-known that people might feel drowned in all the complexity and feel they are missing the main objective. There isn’t an easy answer to this problem since this game doesn’t work with an algorithm.

Written by
Emre Sancakli, Сhess Coach
has a rating of 2400+ on and, making him one of the top 5000 players in the world. He teaches many chess enthusiasts and even creates educational courses. As a writer, he keeps bringing his 'A game' to the content you will face on this website.
Ask Question


Is Ruy Lopez a good opening?

Yes, the Ruy Lopez is considered a strong and classical opening, popular at all levels for its solid principles and strategic depth.

Can a beginner play the Ruy Lopez?

Absolutely. Beginners can play the Ruy Lopez, as it helps develop an understanding of fundamental chess principles like control of the center and piece development.

Is Ruy Lopez complicated?

The Ruy Lopez can become complex due to its rich variety of lines and strategic ideas, but its basic principles are straightforward and accessible to players of all levels.

Why do people play the Ruy Lopez?

Players choose the Ruy Lopez for its versatility, strategic richness, and ability to lead to both open and closed positions, making it suitable for various playing styles.

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