Rook – Chess Piece: Movement & Rules

rook in chess - movement Chess terms

Rooks in chess, along with the queen, are categorized as ‘heavy’ pieces due to their substantial power in the game. Rooks, being formidable attackers, also play a crucial role in the strategic aspects of chess. This article aims to provide a comprehensive exploration of this special chess piece, delving into its various facets to enable a thorough understanding and optimal utilization in the game.

What is a Rook in chess?

The rook in chess is one of the three long-range pieces, the other two being the queen and bishops. In the initial position, each side is given two rooks, placed in the corner of the board. For white, these squares correspond to a1 and h1, whereas for black, to a8 and h8.

Rooks in chess

Typically, the influence of rooks becomes more pronounced as the game progresses, particularly since they are usually the last type of piece to become active. They tend not to play a significant role in the opening phase, but in the middlegame and especially in the endgame, they come into their own. After the queen, rooks are regarded as the second most valuable piece in the game of chess.

How does a Rook move and capture?


A rook can traverse ranks or files, moving either horizontally or vertically, in any direction and in any number of squares, as long as these squares are not occupied by any other piece.

Rook in chess - movement

The squares highlighted with the circles in the diagram above demonstrate all the legal squares that the rook on e4 could choose to move. The maximum number of squares that a single rook can control is 14, as seen in the position. However, it is less typical to have a rook in the middle of the board during the game, as they usually operate from parts of the board that are close to the edges or final ranks.


The way a rook captures another piece is similar to other chess pieces; the rook seizes an opponent’s piece by taking over its position.

Rook captures

In the example above, with it being white’s turn, the white rook could potentially capture the enemy rook on e8, resulting in a backrank checkmate as the black king has no means of escaping the check from the white rook.

Rook’s importance in castling

The only instance when two pieces can move simultaneously in a single move is called castling, a maneuver performed by the rook and the king together. Castling is performed by moving the king two squares towards a rook, and the rook is then placed on the square next to the king.

Positions before and after the kingside castling.

rook castlesRook castles

Positions before and after the queenside castling.

Rook castles

The king and rook cannot have moved prior to castling, and there should be no pieces between them. Additionally, the king must not be in check, nor can it move through or land on a square attacked by an opponent’s piece.

Rook’s role in chess

Rooks in chess are commonly used to patrol open files, penetrate enemy camps (2nd/7th and 1st/8th rank in particular), or support other friendly pieces.

Rooks role in chess

The diagram above demonstrates a typical rook endgame scenario, where a rook assists the friendly passed pawn into promotion from behind. Consequently, black’s rook in this particular position is tied to defense in order to blockade white’s pawn.

The power of rooks can also play a crucial role in middlegame attacks, for example, when both players have castled on opposite sides.

The value of the Rook piece in chess

The approximate value of a rook is generally considered to be around 5 points, which is approximately 1 point less than the combined value of two minor pieces (two bishops or two knights, etc.). When two rooks are well-coordinated and work together, their combined value is often considered to be close to, or even slightly more than, the value of a queen. However, it is important to keep in mind that in chess, piece values are a fluid concept, meaning that their true values are driven from the special characteristics of a position, such as the role they play, their placement and positioning, their mobility and activity, etc.

the value of rook in chessthe value of rook in chess

If we compare the two positions above, in the diagram on the left, white’s rook has great mobility due to the open-files and can harass black’s pawns. Therefore, in the first position, white holds the advantage, even though a purely materialistic assessment might suggest that black has a slight material edge (2 knights with a value of 6 points compared to 1 rook with a value of 5 points). In the second position, the number of pieces is the same as in the previous position. However, this time, black’s pawn structure is much more solid, restricting the mobility of white’s rooks. Consequently, black has a better position, and the materialistic advantage of black (6 points vs. 5 points) is more pronounced in this scenario.

What are the Rook’s vulnerabilities?

Just like the queen, as a long-range piece, rooks are happiest when they have enough space to move. In cramped positions, they face the danger of being trapped.

Rooks are most vulnerable to diagonal attacks. They are susceptible to skewers and pins. As a result, they are commonly positioned in areas of the board nearer to the edges and final ranks, minimizing the risk of attacks from diagonally backward directions. Below are a few examples displaying typical tactical motifs that rooks might be exposed to:

Rooks vulnerabilities

The diagram above highlights a case where a humble pawn can cause big trouble for two rooks at once by attacking both of them at once. This is a typical case of fork by pawn.


Rooks and skewer

Another example of rooks’ vulnerability in the diagonal direction is shown above, where black’s bishop skewers white’s rooks. If the rook on e2 shifts, the rook on the first rank (d1) will be vulnerable to the bishop and susceptible to capture.

Another typical tactical motif that is very commonly seen is a knight fork, either with a check or with an attack on two rooks. If we examine the starting position of a chess game, the rooks on the a-files and the kings are placed in such a way that they might be susceptible to a knight fork on c2 or c7. For example, after the moves, 1.d4 d5 2.Bf4 (London System) Nf6 3.Nc3 Nc6 4.Nb5, black’s pawn on c7 is attacked twice, and material loss for black is now impossible to avoid as the pawn cannot be sufficiently defended:

rook and skewer in london system

So, after a move like 4…Bf5, white’s knight on b5 could capture the pawn on c7, 5.Nxc7+ delivering a knight fork on rook with check and winning a material on the next move. This is a highly typical tactical motif, particularly in games between novices. Hence, even in the initial moves of the game, one needs to be mindful of this motif that is potentially present in the starting position.

rook and skewer in london system 1

Strategies and Techniques with Rooks

The main reason why rooks are effectively utilized in seizing control of files and ranks is usually related to the prospect of penetrating the enemy’s first two ranks.

strategies with rooks - 7th rank


For example, in the diagram above, white’s rook is patrolling the c-file, while black’s rook cannot encounter white’s rook in the same way. As a result, white’s rook is free to penetrate 7th rank (c7) on the next move, posing defensive challenges to black.

Rooks tend to get active in later stages of the game, starting in the middlegame. In the middlegame, they are great at supporting an attack executed in opposite side castling scenarios.


strategies with rooks - g and h files

In the example above, black’s king is in severe danger due to the pressure of white’s rooks on the open g- and h-files. With the inclusion of the white queen, the attack will be decisive. When the middlegame position is not that sharp but rather a slow and positional battle, it is still generally considered best practice to ‘connect rooks’. This term refers to the situation when both rooks are defending each other, usually once the queen leaves their starting rank.

doubling the rooks

In the diagram above, both sides moved their queen up to connect the rooks. This technique reinforces the control of the related rank.
Besides connecting the rooks, doubling the rooks is another effective technique that is commonly used to reinforce the control of a file.

Doubled rooks

The benefits of doubling the rook can be seen in the diagram above. Black cannot fight back for control of the c-file with a move like …Rc8 right now because it would be captured. Additionally, white’s rook on 2nd rank can penetrate to 7th rank, despite black’s queen, thanks to the support of the rook on c1.

The most common tactical motifs featuring rooks are usually sacrifices such as deflection, clearance, or discovery checks. The windmill technique is a typical tactical motif that is based on the discovery check idea.

Carlos Torre and Emanuel Lasker

The position above, from the famous game between Carlos Torre and Emanuel Lasker, 1925, features the Windmill motif, which refers to the idea of moving the rook back and forth along a file, unleashing discovered checks, and creating a sequence that can lead to a significant material advantage. White can play here 1.Rxf7+ Kg8 2.Rg7+ Kh8 3.Rxb7+ Kg8 4.Rg7+ Kh8 5.Rg5+ Kh7 6.Rxh5 and gain material by force.

As more pieces are exchanged, bringing the game closer to the endgame stage, the increased empty space enhances the mobility of rooks, allowing them to play a more active and influential role. Endgames, where rooks play the most influential role, are called rook endgames. Since this type of endgame is one of the most frequently occurring, it is highly crucial for any serious player to be familiar with the fundamentals of the rook endgame. Studying techniques such as cutting-off the king or Lucena position will provide essential knowledge for navigating these common endgames and securing favorable outcomes.

Author’s thoughts on Rooks

Activating rooks right from the start would not be recommended, as their true power becomes apparent as the game unfolds and ample space is provided for their mobility. Mastering the movements of rooks is a straightforward task, as their movement is perhaps the most natural and intuitive among all pieces. However, the effective use of rooks requires strategic expertise, which can be primarily acquired by playing through instructional games and paying attention to how masters make use of their rooks.

Written by
Deniz Tasdelen, National Master
National Master with over 20 years of experience. He has participated in many prestigious tournaments, including the European and World Youth Chess Championships.
Ask Question


Why are they called rooks in chess?

The term “rook” in chess finds its origins in the Persian term “rukh,” denoting a chariot.

What are the rooks of chess?

The rooks in chess are the heavy, tower-like pieces that are placed at the corners of the board in the initial setup.

Why are rooks so powerful?

Rooks wield significant power due to their ability to traverse ranks and files, making them formidable at controlling open lines and contributing to the endgame stage. - Your One Stop Chess Resource
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