Middle Game in Chess

Middle game in chess Chess terms

The chess middlegame can be described as the stage of a chess game where the real action happens. It is the ocean that is home to all kinds of tactical intricacies and rich strategic ideas that the world of chess provides us. For many chess players, the middlegame in chess is not only the most fun part of chess but also the most decisive phase, where the outcome of the game more or less gets determined. Therefore, it is crucial to thoroughly understand middlegame principles, master a wide range of tactical motifs, and formulate effective strategies to navigate this complex phase of the game successfully. This article aims to introduce you to all the essential middlegame concepts you need to know.

Key Points

  • The middlegame stage in chess essentially boils down to a battle for gaining a material or positional advantage.
  • Strategy and tactics are the building blocks of the middle game. True mastery of chess is all about finding the perfect balance between these two aspects of chess when making decisions.
  • Examine each position to grasp the spirit of the position and its positional requirements. Then, based on the needs of the positions, build your plans to be executed in a couple of moves.

What is considered a middle game?

It is not easy to come up with a clear-cut definition that would allow us to say when the opening phase of the game has been concluded or when we have not transitioned into the endgame. Such an attempt at definition mainly depends on the specific characteristics of a position, and the array of possible shapes that a middlegame position can take is exceedingly vast, especially when considering the number of pieces that remain on the board. The two main characteristics of a given position for identifying whether a position has entered the middlegame stage are the security of the kings, for instance, whether both sides have completed their castling, and the status of piece development, particularly the minor pieces, which should ideally have reached their intended squares.

Middle game position

An example of a middle game position.

It may help to think about the opening phase as the stage of the game where both sides make their army ready for the upcoming heated battle by placing them on ideal squares that maximize their fighting power. This stage typically takes up 10-15 moves. Subsequently, once this preparatory stage reaches its culmination, the game progresses to the phase of close combat, the middlegame. Here, the two opposing armies draw near, and the true essence of the game unfolds, marked by intense clashes and strategic intricacies.

What is the goal of the middle game?

The most simple answer to the goal of the middle game would be to attain an advantage. Advantages in the middlegame can take various forms, including: material advantage, space advantage, initiative, favorable pawn structure, and piece activity. Depending on the type of advantage gained, it may allow the player to launch a potential checkmating attack (e.g., based on piece activity and initiative) or gain a positional edge by creating weaknesses to target or weak squares to seize control of. Eventually, such advantages can generally be capitalized by transitioning into a winning endgame.

What is the difference between a middle game and an endgame?

Drawing a clear line between middlegame and endgame is a complex task, as exceptions to the definitions can almost always be found. Generally speaking, the endgame stage is where fewer pieces are left on the board, e.g., a couple of minor pieces are exchanged and the queens are off the board. Piece exchanges create space on the board, which makes long-range pieces like rooks thrive.

We can also make a broad distinction between these two stages of the game as follows: In endgames, the primary objective is to convert an existing advantage into victory, while in the middlegame, the primary goal is to secure and establish that advantage.

What are the chess middlegame strategies?

Developing a well-thought-out strategy is crucial for a successful middlegame phase. In this section, we will explore different elements of middlegame strategies that require careful consideration.

1. Plan Creation

In the context of chess, a plan refers to a strategic course of action or series of moves that a player devises to achieve a specific goal or advantage, and it is not a secret that a big part of chess is mostly about thinking ahead. So then, how do we organize our thought process and come up with effective plans that guide us with our next moves? Generally, plans are created by carefully evaluating the position, identifying weaknesses or opportunities, and formulating a sequence of moves to exploit them. They can be executed in short-term or long-term steps, but ideally, a player should always have an idea or a plan in mind before making a move.

The most common mistake players make during this process is to only focus on their wishes and plans, ignoring or neglecting their opponents counter-plans, or that they too have ideas of their own to materialize.

Plan Creation

Typically, a high-quality plan is driven by the positional needs of the position, e.g. pawn structure, improving pieces, fighting for control of a key square, creating or targeting the weakness of the opponent, etc. Below is an example of highly standard plan called Minority Attack in a Carlsbad pawn formation, a structure commonly seen in Queen’s Gambit Declined:

middle game - Queen’s Gambit Declined position

White wants to create a target on the queenside, and a typical plan for this objective might consist of advancing pawns to a2-a4 and b2-b4-b5 to break blacks pawn structure so that pawns become vulnerable and targeted easily.

2. Targeting opponent’s weaknesses

The most common forms of weaknesses in a chess position include squares lacking pawn protection, making them susceptible to occupation by enemy pieces, and the presence of isolated pawns or doubled pawns, which can be targeted and are not readily defended.

Targeting opponents weaknesses

In the diagram above, black’s pawn on c6 is isolated and cannot be defended with other pawns when it is attacked. White has many ways to target this pawn: 1.Ne5, followed by 2.Bf3, or 1.Qc2 followed by 2.Rfc1, while black has not adequate defensive resources. The a6-pawn is likely to be targeted next.

It is also beneficial to be mindful of the principle of two weaknesses. The idea behind the principle of two weaknesses is that focusing on a single weakness may allow your opponent to consolidate their position and defend adequately. By targeting two weaknesses, you increase the complexity of their defensive task, potentially forcing their defensive pieces to be overloaded.

3. Thrive your rooks and queen on open files and ranks

Unleash the potential of each piece by placing them in favorable conditions. Long-range pieces like rooks and queens thrive in open spaces, and they need room to breathe.

Thrive your rooks and queen on open files and ranks

In the position above, an effective idea for white would be to play 1.Rfc1, taking control of the open c-file, A typical follow-up plan for white would be to double the rooks on the c-file, e.g. Rc2, then Rac1. At the moment, white’s rooks are also ‘connected’ in the first rank, meaning they are protecting each other, which is the ideal condition for them to be in. The basic idea behind occupying open file with rooks is the possibility of penetrating enemy camp via 7-th or 8-th rank, from where the rooks can attack pawns or target the king.

4. Improving the Worst Piece

A highly recommended habit to attain for your thinking process during the game is called “talking to your pieces”. This means your inner dialogue should include questions like “where would this piece ideally like to be placed to function optimally?”. Strong chess players consistently review the placement of their pieces, e.g., their minor pieces, to ensure they are effectively positioned and actively contributing to the game.

Improving the Worst Piece

In the diagram above, white’s rook is placed optimally, controlling the d-file, and the queen seems to be on an energetic square. However, the bishop on c4 is basically ‘hitting against the wall’ of pawns. White could reroute the bishop via e2 to f3 and the bishop would be much more useful on the long diagonal, restricting the mobility black’s rook and queen.

5. Breakthroughs

Closed or semi-closed positions due to pawn structure may be opened up with timely pawn breaks in a way that favors the activity of the side that initiates the breakthrough. Opening-up the lines allows the forces to penetrate enemy territory:


In the position above, black’s king is having a hard time finding a safe home. White is enjoying a space advantage and has its pieces full of potential energy. This energy can be unleashed by opening up the position, 1.f4! If black captures on f4, white recaptures with bishop, and suddenly white’s rook on f1, queen and dark bishop will be creating danger. Otherwise, f-pawn will advance, creating threats like a fork on f6 etc.

6. Exchange Consideration

When forces from both sides come into contact, mutual captures will be inevitable, and pieces will be traded. When deciding what pieces to keep on the board and which ones to exchange, there are a few points to take into account:

1. Who gets the biggest benefit from this exchange?
2. Does this exchange help my opponent get rid of their badly placed pieces?
3. Does this trade relieve my position or my opponents’ position?

For example, the side with a lack of space would usually prefer exchanging pieces because fewer people in a room would mean more space for each person. Also, a typical method of converting a material advantage would be to simplify the position by exchanging pieces so that the material advantage is felt even more. The position below shows a very basic form of such an instance:

What are the chess middlegame principles?

Chess has been around for a while, and over the years of trial and error by the masters, they have discovered some concepts that guide players in making correct strategic and tactical decisions in the middlegame. We can call this established wisdom as middlegame principles. Below is a list of the most prominent ones to be mindful of.

King Safety

Undoubtedly, securing a safe spot for the king stands as the paramount objective in a game of chess, given that a checkmate promptly concludes the game. Taking proactive measures to safeguard your king involves refraining from making superfluous pawn moves around your king and maintaining an adequate number of pieces near your king for defensive purposes. Advancing pawns in front of the king should be considered twice, as they create vulnerable holes that allow opponents forces to occupy more easily.

King Safety

White’s last move here, g2-g4, creates serious weakness around the king without clear justification. Such unnecessary pawn pushes are to be avoided.

Piece Activity and Initiative

Piece activity and initiative are two essential concepts in the middlegame that may play a decisive role, e.g., determining the success of a kingside attack. While piece activity can be described as the effectiveness of your chess piece’s engagement in the position, initiative in chess refers to a player’s ability to dictate the course of the game and force their opponent to react to threats and tactics. These two concepts are intertwined because when your pieces are active, they can create threats to which the opponent has to respond, which then means you are setting the agenda and controlling the flow of the position.

Avoid creating weaknesses

The swiftest method of inducing vulnerabilities in your position is by pushing pawns forward without careful thought, generating openings that rival pieces can exploit and occupy. So it is better to refrain from such moves for as long as possible.

Avoid creating weaknesses

Above, black play f7-f6, to chase the bishop, which was pinning the e7 pawn, however, this has created serious weaknesses on the light squares, such as e6, f7, g6, h7 squares. With a move like Bc4, white will exert significant pressure on that color complex.

Guard your Pawn Formation

The nature of a chess game is predominantly influenced by the pawn structure, as it forms the foundation for strategic considerations, including identifying weak squares, planning pawn breakthroughs, and assessing spatial advantages. These strategic points give us clues about the demands of the position, upon which we can build our plans. Hence, it is highly recommended to familiarize yourself with the ins and outs of the pawn formations that are likely to appear from the opening of your choice.

What are the chess midgame tactics?

Tactics in chess refer to specific short-term sequences of moves and combinations that exploit weaknesses or create threats on the board, often resulting in the capture of material, checkmate, or significant positional advantages. Tactics are the very concrete side of chess and require precise calculation. One may have a perfectly reasonable sounding strategic plan, but the move by move execution must be free of any tactical flaws. Strategy and tactics in chess are intertwined like theory and practice. A strategic evaluation of a position may lead to the conclusion that an exchange would leave the opponent with an isolated pawn, which is considered a weakness. However, it’s crucial to be aware of potential tactical follow-ups, as there could be opportunities for the opponent to execute checkmate despite their isolated pawn. In other words, tactics are very direct and concrete, and the majority of the time, they can even be decisive in the outcome of the game.

Certain tactical motifs in chess exhibit recurring patterns or piece configurations. Since these motifs are relatively finite in number, they can be categorized and assigned specific names for study. The ability to notice those tactical opportunities in a game is called pattern recognition, a skill highly essential for any serious player. Let’s delve into some of the fundamental tactical motifs.


A “pin” is a tactical situation where a piece, typically a pinned piece, is restricted from moving because it would expose a more valuable piece, such as the king, queen, or rook, to capture by an opponent’s piece.


Here, white has moved their bishop from d1 to f3, pinning black’s knight, because if it moves, white bishop could capture the rook, which has a higher value than a knight. There are various types of pins, such as absolute pins, relative pins, partial pins, and cross pins. Along with the forks, the pin is the most essential tactical concept in chess that is used to gain material or positional advantages.


A “fork” is a tactical maneuver where one piece simultaneously attacks two or more of the opponent’s pieces on the board.


White knight in the diagram above attacks black’s king and rook simultaneously. Black king has to move out of check, and white will then capture the rook, gaining a decisive material advantage.

Discovered Attacks

When one piece moves to reveal an attack from another piece behind it, we call it a discovered attack. In the example below, white can play 1.Nd6+, revealing an attack by the white queen on black’s queen. Since black has to deal with the check, either by capturing the knight or moving the king out of check, white will gain black’s queen on the next move 2.Qxc4.

Discovered Attacks

Double Check

A double check occurs when the king is simultaneously attacked by two different pieces, and the player’s only legal response is to move the king.

Double Check

Here, white can play 1.Nf6#, it would not only double check but also be a checkmate in this case because black king has no square to move.

Double Check result


Middlegames in chess can be seen as the stage of the game where all the fundamental qualities that define chess, including strategic thinking, problem-solving, tactical fireworks, planning, accurate evaluation, and decision-making, reach their peak and come to life most vividly. It is also arguably the richest and most intense phase of the game, making it exceptionally enjoyable for players. The high degree of complexity of the middle game makes it hard to systematically develop a theory of it like an opening theory. However, it can be mastered through careful study of the middlegame concepts mentioned in this article, by playing a lot of games and reviewing the mistakes after each game, and by going through the instructive model games played by masters.

Written by
Deniz Tasdelen, National Master
National Master with over 20 years of experience. He has participated in many prestigious tournaments, including the European and World Youth Chess Championships.
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